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Anatomy :: Conditions :: Treatment

Knee Anatomy

The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends.

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Physical Examination of the Knee

A complete physical examination of the knee is performed when you present to your doctor with a knee complaint. Both of your knees are examined and the results of the injured knee are compared to those of the healthy knee.

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Know Your Knee

The knee joint is one of the most complex joints in the body. It consists of bones, ligaments, and muscles. The knee is made up of the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone), and patella (kneecap).

Find out more about your knee with the following link

Conditions

Knee Pain

The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or knee cap.

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Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is a characterised by chronic pain over the front and centre of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals.

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Runner’s Knee

Runner’s knee, also called patellofemoral pain syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap.

Find out more about Runner’s Knee Pain with the following link

Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to a condition of an overuse injury that occurs in the knee region of growing children and adolescents. This is caused by inflammation of the tendon located below the knee cap (patellar tendon). Children and adolescents who participate in sports such as soccer, gymnastics, basketball and distance running are at higher risk of this disease.

Find out more about Osgood-Schlatter Disease with the following link

Chondromalacia Patella

The patella also called the knee cap, is a small bone present on the front of your knee joint. The underside of the patella is covered by cartilage that allows smooth gliding of the knee with movement. Overuse or misalignment of the patella can cause wear and tear of the cartilage.

Find out more about Chondromalacia Patella with the following link

Jumper’s Knee

Jumper’s knee, also known as “patellar tendinitis” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone.

Find out more about Jumper’s Knee with the following link

Bursitis

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that is found between skin, muscles, tendons and bones. It lubricates and acts as a cushion in decreasing the friction, rubbing and irritation between these parts with movement. Bursitis refers to the inflammation or swelling of the bursa.

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Baker’s Cyst

The knee consists of a fluid called synovial fluid, which reduces friction between the bones of the knee joint while you move your leg. Sometimes this fluid is produced in excess, resulting in its accumulation in the back of your knee.

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Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury resulting from the inflammation of iliotibial band. Iliotibial band is a tough group of fibres that begins at the iliac crest of the hip and runs along the outside of the thigh, to get attached to the outer side of the shin bone just below the knee joint.

Find out more about Iliotibial Band Syndrome with the following link

Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome

Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players.

Find out more about Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome with the following link

Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply. The separated fragments are sometimes called “joint mice”.

Find out more about Osteochondritis Dissecans with the following link

Shin Splints

“Shin splints” is used to describe the pain and inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue around the tibia or shin bone (a large bone in the lower leg).

Find out more about Shin Splints with the following link

Knee Injuries & Tears

Knee Sprain

Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range causing the ligaments to tear.

Find out more about Knee Sprain with the following link

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of the major ligaments of the knee that is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone).

Find out more about Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears with the following link

Medial Collateral Ligament Tears (MCL)

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament that is located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilising the knee.

Find out more about Medial Collateral Ligament Tears (MCL) with the following link

MCL Sprain

The medial collateral ligament (MCL), a band of tissue present on the inside of your knee joint, connects your thigh bone and shin bone (bone of your lower leg). The MCL maintains the integrity of the knee joint and prevents it from bending inward.

Find out more about MCL Sprain with the following link

Meniscal Injuries

The knee is one of the most complex and largest joints in the body, and is more susceptible to injury. Meniscal tears are one among the common injuries to the knee joint.

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Meniscal Tears

Meniscal tears are one of the most frequently reported injuries to the knee joint. The meniscus is a C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure in the knee incompletely covering the surface of the tibia where it articulates with the femur.

Find out more about Meniscal Tears with the following link

Ligament Injuries

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

Find out more about Ligament Injuries with the following link

Multiligament Instability

The knee is a complex joint of the body which is vital for movement. The four major ligaments of the knee are anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament.

Find out more about Multiligament Instability with the following link

Multiligament Injuries

Ligaments are the fibrous tissue bands connecting the bones in the joint and stabilising the joint. The knee has four major ligaments – the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, lateral collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament.

Find out more about Multiligament Injuries with the following link

Knee Arthritis

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint.

Find out more about Knee Arthritis with the following link

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).

Find out more about Osteoarthritis with the following link

Knee Fracture

Patellar Dislocation

Patella (knee cap) is a protective bone attached to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh by quadriceps tendon.

Find out more about Patellar Dislocation with the following link

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis, also known as “jumper’s knee” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

Find out more about Patellar Tendinitis with the following link

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee, is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia).

Find out more about Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries with the following link

Chondral (Articular Cartilage) Defects

Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.

Find out more about Chondral (Articular Cartilage) Defects with the following link

Patellar Instability

Patellar (knee cap) instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations (subluxations).

Find out more about Patellar Instability with the following link

Patellofemoral Instability Knee

Patellofemoral Instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations, also called subluxations. This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.

Find out more about Patellofemoral Instability Knee with the following link

Patello Femoral Dislocation

Patella (knee cap) is a protective bone attached to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh by quadriceps tendon.

Find out more about Patello Femoral Dislocation with the following link

Patella Fracture

The knee cap or patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and one of the components of the knee joint, present at the front of the knee. The undersurface of the kneecap and the lower end of the femur are coated with articular cartilage, which helps in smooth movement of the knee joint.

Find out more about Patella Fracture with the following link

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

Quadriceps tendon is a thick tissue located at the top of the kneecap. The quadriceps tendon works together with the quadriceps muscles to allow us to straighten our leg.

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Patella Tendon Rupture or Tear

Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (knee cap) to the top portion of the tibia (shin bone).

Find out more about Patella Tendon Rupture or Tear with the following link

Lateral Meniscus Syndrome

The knee joint is formed by the union of two bones, namely the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (lower leg bone). At the junction of these two bones is a cartilage called the meniscus, which acts as a shock absorber. There are two menisci – the lateral and medial menisci.

Find out more about Lateral Meniscus Syndrome with the following link

Medial Meniscus Syndrome

Of the menisci within the knee, it is the medial that is more easily injured. Differences in the anatomical attachments of the medial meniscus compared to the lateral mean that the medial meniscus becomes distorted during combined flexion and rotation movements in a manner not experienced on the lateral side.

Find out more about Medial Meniscus Syndrome with the following link

Tibial Eminence Fractures

Tibial eminence spine avulsion fracture is avulsion (tear away) of the tibial eminence (an extension on the bone for attachment of muscles) which most commonly involves the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site.

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Osteonecrosis of the Knee

Osteonecrosis is a condition in which death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women. Women over the age of 60 years of age are commonly affected, three times more often than men.

Find out more about Osteonecrosis of the Knee with the following link

Knee Angular Deformities (Knock legs and Bow legs)

Angular deformities of the knee are common during childhood and usually are variations in the normal growth pattern. Angular deformity of the knee is a part of normal growth and development during early childhood.

Find out more about Knee Angular Deformities (Knock legs and Bow legs) with the following link

Treatment

Non Surgical Treatment

Non-Surgical Knee Treatments

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

Find out more about Non-Surgical Knee Treatments with the following link

Pharmacological

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

Find out more about Pharmacological with the following link

Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) Injection

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a newer modality of treatment for the management of many orthopaedic conditions including sport injuries. RBC (red blood cells), WBC (white blood cells), plasma, and platelets are the major components of blood.

Find out more about Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) Injection with the following link

Viscosupplementation (Synvisc) Injection

Viscosupplementation refers to the injection of a hyaluronan preparation into the joint. Hyaluronan is a natural substance present in the joint fluid that assists in lubrication. It allows smooth movement of the cartilage covered articulating surfaces of the joint.

Find out more about Viscosupplementation (Synvisc) Injection with the following link

Cortisone Injection

Cortisone is a hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stress. It is a potent anti-inflammatory agent.

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Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy or physical therapy is an exercise program that helps you to improve movement, relieve pain, encourage blood flow for faster healing, and restore your physical function and fitness level.

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Surgical Treatment or Procedures

Knee Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links

Knee Arthroplasty

Minimally or Less Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty

The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle.

Find out more about Minimally or Less Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty with the following link

Knee Replacement

Knee Osteotomy

Knee Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which the upper shinbone (tibia) or lower thighbone (femur) is cut and realigned. It is usually performed in arthritic conditions affecting only one side of your knee and the aim is to take pressure off the damaged area and shift it to the other side of your knee with healthy cartilage.

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High Tibial Osteotomy

High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on the damaged site of an arthritic knee joint.

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Tibial Tubercule Osteotomy

Tibial tubercle osteotomy is a surgical procedure which is performed along with other procedures to treat patellar instability, patellofemoral pain, and osteoarthritis.

Find out more about Tibial Tubercule Osteotomy with the following link

Uni condylar Knee Replacement

This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.

Find out more about Unicondylar Knee Replacement with the following links

Patellofemoral Knee Replacement

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint. This surface can wear out for a number of reasons; often the definite cause is not known.

Find out more about Patellofemoral Knee Replacement with the following link

What’s New in Knee Replacement?

For a patient considering knee replacement surgery, there are new developments under study which can help enhance their quality of life.

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Computer Navigation For Total Knee Replacement

A total knee replacement surgery is the last resort to relieve pain and restore function in knee damaged by arthritis or an injury when non-surgical treatments do not relieve the condition.

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Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces arthritic knee joint with artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.

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Partial Knee Replacement

Partial knee replacement simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement.

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Custom Knee Replacement Surgery

Total knee replacement is often the last option when conservative options fail to relieve the pain and retard the progression of joint damage in patients with severe arthritis.

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Revision Knee Replacement

This means that complete or a part of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from a very minor adjustment to a massive operation replacing significant amount of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

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Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Replacement

Partial knee replacement simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement

Find out more about Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Replacement with the following link

Knee Reconstruction

Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is a surgical procedure indicated in patients with more severe patellar instability. Medial patellofemoral ligament is a band of tissue that extends from the femoral medial epicondyle to the superior aspect of the patella.

Find out more about Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction with the following link

Multi Ligament Knee Reconstruction

The knee is the most complex joint in the body and is formed by the articulation between the thigh bone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia). A knee cap is present over the front of the joint to provide extra protection.

Find out more about Multi Ligament Knee Reconstruction with the following link

Distal Realigment Procedures

Distal realignment procedures, also known as TTT or tibial tubercle transfer procedures are performed to reposition the kneecap by realigning the tendon under the kneecap to the underlying tibial tubercle.

Find out more about Distal Realigment Procedures with the following link

Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Knee for Ligament Injuries

The knee is the most complex joint in the body and is formed by the articulation between the thigh bone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia).

Find out more about Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Knee for Ligament Injuries with the following link

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear & Reconstruction

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee, is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward movement of the shinbone.

Find out more about Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear & Reconstruction with the following links

LCL Reconstruction

Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is a thin set of tissues present on the outer side of the knee, connecting the thighbone (femur) to the fibula (shin bone of lower leg). It provides stability as well as limits the sidewise rotation of the knee.

Find out more about LCL Reconstruction with the following links

Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilising ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.

Find out more about Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction with the following links

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

Patient Specific Knee Options

Signature Knees

The knee joint, made up of the ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) is cushioned by a spongy tissue called cartilage. Damage and wear and tear of the cartilage causes painful rubbing of the joint bones, leading to disability.

Find out more about Signature Knees with the following link

iTotal Customised Knee Replacement System

The ConforMIS iTotal CR is an individualized patient specific implant for replacement of all the three compartments of the knee. It is thus most appropriate for patients with knee arthritis and knee damage requiring implant for not one or two but all the three compartments of the knee.

Find out more about iTotal Customised Knee Replacement System with the following links

Custom Fitted Total Knee Arthroplasty

Custom fitted total knee arthroplasty is a newer technology in total knee replacement surgery. It is an advanced procedure using an individualised patient-specific knee implant for replacement of all three components of the knee.

Find out more about Custom Fitted Total Knee Arthroplasty with the following link

Knee Implants

Knee Implants are artificial devices that form the essential parts of the knee during a knee replacement surgery. The knee implants vary by size, shape, and material. Implants are made of biocompatible materials that are accepted by the body without producing any rejection response.

Find out more about Knee Implants with the following link

Cartilage Restoration

Patellar Tendon Repair

Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (knee cap) to the top portion of the tibia (shin bone). The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out.

Find out more about Patellar Tendon Repair with the following link

Knee Ligament Reconstruction

The knee is the most complex joint in the body formed by the articulation between the thigh bone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia). These bones are held together by four strong ropes like structures called ligaments.

Find out more about Knee Ligament Reconstruction with the following link

Cartilage Replacement

Cartilage replacement is a surgical procedure performed to replace the worn out cartilage with the new cartilage. It is usually performed to treat patients with small areas of cartilage damage usually caused by sports or traumatic injuries.

Find out more about Cartilage Replacement with the following link

Cartilage Repair and Transplantation

Articular Cartilage is the white tissue lining the end of bones where these bones connect to form joints. Cartilage acts as cushioning material and helps in smooth gliding of bones during movement.

Find out more about Cartilage Repair and Transplantation with the following link

OATS (Osteochondral Autologous Transfer Surgery)

Osteochondral Autologous Transfer Surgery (OATS) is a surgical procedure to treat isolated cartilage defects which usually 10 to 20mm in size.

Find out more about OATS (Osteochondral Autologous Transfer Surgery) with the following link

Resurfacing

Bicompartmental Knee Resurfacing

The knee can be divided into three compartments: Patellofemoral, the compartment on the front of the knee which contains the knee cap, medial compartment, the compartment on the inside of the knee, and lateral compartment which is the area on the outside of the knee joint.

Find out more about Bicompartmental Knee Resurfacing with the following link

Partial Knee Resurfacing

Partial knee replacement is an alternative to total knee replacement in patients with arthritis on only one side of the knee. Partial knee replacement is a surgical procedure which involves resurfacing and replacement of only the diseased surface of the joint instead of the entire joint.

Find out more about Partial Knee Resurfacing with the following link

Others

Osteoarthritis Management

Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).

Find out more about Osteoarthritis Management with the following link

Arthroscopic Debridement – Knee

Osteoarthritis is a most common form of arthritis which affects the articular cartilage (tissue covering the ends of the bones) of the knee and also other joints such as shoulder, hip, ankle and foot. The articular cartilage cushions the joint so that there is smooth and pain-free movement between the bones in the joint.

Find out more about Arthroscopic Debridement – Knee with the following link

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI)

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a procedure to treat the articular cartilage defects of the knee. This procedure is effective for treating small areas of cartilage damage that causes pain and swelling and restricts the range of motion.

Find out more about Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) with the following link

Osteonecrosis of the Knee

Osteonecrosis is a condition in which death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women. Women over the age of 60 years of age are commonly affected, three times more often than men.

Find out more about Osteonecrosis of the Knee with the following link

Knee Angular Deformities (Knock legs and Bow legs)

Angular deformities of the knee are common during childhood and usually are variations in the normal growth pattern. Angular deformity of the knee is a part of normal growth and development during early childhood.

Find out more about Knee Angular Deformities (Knock legs and Bow legs) with the following link

Subchondroplasty

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common form of arthritis that causes joint pain and stiffness. It is a progressive disease in which the joint cartilage gradually wears away and may lead to disability.

Find out more about Subchondroplasty with the following link

Partial Meniscectomy

Partial meniscectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the torn portion of the meniscus from the knee joint. Meniscus is the C-shaped cartilage located in the knee that lubricates the knee joint, acts as shock-absorber, and controls the flexion and extension of joint.

Find out more about Partial Meniscectomy with the following link

Meniscal Surgery

Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear.

Find out more about Meniscal Surgery with the following link

Knee Angular Deformity Correction Surgery

Angular deformities of the knee are common during childhood and usually are variations in the normal growth pattern. Angular deformity of the knee is a part of normal growth and development during early childhood.

Find out more about Knee angular deformity correction surgery with the following link

Knee Angular Deformity Correction Surgery

Angular deformities of the knee are common during childhood and usually are variations in the normal growth pattern. Angular deformity of the knee is a part of normal growth and development during early childhood.

Find out more about Knee Angular Deformity Correction Surgery with the following link

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