The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or knee cap. Several ligaments and muscles attach to the bones of the knee joint to maintain normal motion of the joint. Special cartilaginous tissues known as menisci are placed between the two articular ends of the joint. These act as a cushion between the articular surfaces and absorb the shock during movement.
Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals from different age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts the quality of life of the individual. An injury or disease of the knee joint or any structure surrounding the knee can result in knee pain. A precise diagnosis of the underlying cause is important to develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Some of the common causes for knee pain include:
Knee conditions should be evaluated by your doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment. A detailed medical history and physical examination of the knee are crucial for the diagnosis. Your doctor may also conduct diagnostic imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI scans, CT scans, and ultrasound. Blood tests may be performed to identify any infection, gout or pseudogout. Sometimes arthrocentesis may also be performed, wherein the fluid from the knee joint is removed and sent for laboratory analysis.
Treatment options depend upon the underlying cause responsible for knee pain. Some of the common treatment options for knee pain include rest, ice and heat application, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, stretching, physical therapy and cortisone injections.
Sometimes a knee arthroscopy may be performed. Knee arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which the internal structures of the joint are examined to diagnose as well as treat the underlying problem.
If you experience difficulty or inability to walk, deformity around the joint, inability to bend the knee, knee pain persisting beyond a few days and more at night, or pain associated with swelling, warmth, or redness, you should consult your doctor for immediate medical intervention.